Cancers We Treat

Explore the Cancers we treat

At Halifax Health - Center for Oncology our physicians are leaders in their specialty fields, treatment plans are created through a Multidisciplinary approach with the most advanced medical technology utilizing targeted radiation therapies and minimally invasive surgical techniques. Together combined with our outcomes, advanced technologies, patient navigator programs, and strong reputation for having the ability to treat our patients locally in our own community.

  • Adrenal Carcinoma

    What is adrenal cancer?

    Adrenal cancer is a rare cancer that starts in the adrenal glands.

    Anatomy of the adrenal glands

    There are 2 adrenal glands. One sits on of each kidney. The 2 kidneys are located deep in the upper part of the belly (abdomen). The outer part of the adrenal gland is called the adrenal cortex. Most adrenal cancers start in this area. The inner part is called the adrenal medulla.

     

  • Anal Cancer

    Anal Cancer: Introduction

    What is anal cancer?

    Anal cancer is cancer that starts in the cells of the anus. Different types of tumors can form in the anus. Some of these tumors are not cancer. These tumors can include:

    • Benign or noncancerous anal tumors. Polyps are small growths that may be flat or bumpy. Or they may look like mushrooms. They are not cancer. There are different types of polyps depending on their location and their cause. Inflammatory polyps, lymphoid polyps, and skin tags (fibroepithelial polyps) are examples of noncancerous (benign) polyps. Other types of benign tumors include adnexal tumors, leiomyomas, and granular cell tumors. They also include hemangiomas, lipomas, and schwannomas. These are all rare.

    • Anal warts (condylomas). These are noncancerous growths that may occur just outside the anus and in the lower anal canal. They are caused by infection with a human papilloma virus (HPV). People who have had anal warts are more likely to get anal cancer.

    • Precancerous lesions. Many people who get the most common type of anal cancer (squamous cell carcinoma) first had some patches of irregular cells. Your healthcare provider may call these lesions anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). Each year, a small percentage of people with AIN get invasive cancer.

    • Malignant anal tumors. These are cancerous tumors. The most common type is squamous cell carcinoma. This type of anal cancer starts in the cells that line the anal margin and most of the anal canal. Cloacogenic carcinomas (or transitional cell carcinomas) are a type of squamous cell carcinoma. Adenocarcinomas are another type of anal tumor. They account for a small number of cases of anal cancer. Other types of malignant anal tumors are very rare.

  • Appendiceal (Appendix) Cancer

    What is Appendiceal Cancer?

    Appendix cancer occurs when healthy cells in the appendix change and grow out of control. These cells form a growth of tissue, called a tumor. A tumor can be cancerous or benign. A cancerous tumor is malignant, meaning it can grow and spread to other parts of the body. Another name for appendix cancer is appendiceal cancer. A benign tumor means the tumor can grow but will not spread.

    Types of appendix tumors

    There are different types of tumors that can start in the appendix: 

    • Neuroendocrine tumor.
    • Appendiceal mucoceles
    • Colonic-type adenocarcinoma
    • Signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma
    • Goblet cell carcinomas/adenoneuroendocrines
    • Paraganglioma

    **Source ASCO - cancer.net

  • Astrocytoma

    Astrocytoma. This is the most common type of cancer brain tumor. Its name comes from the star-shaped brain cells that make up the tumor. These tumors can grow anywhere in the brain.

  • Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Basal cell carcinoma

    Basal cell carcinoma, also known as basal cell cancer, is the most common type of skin cancer. It begins in basal cells in the deepest part of the epidermis. It often starts in areas of skin exposed to the sun, such as the face, head, neck, arms, and hands. The cancer lesion often appears as small, raised, shiny, or pearly bumps, but it can have various kinds of appearance. They tend to grow slowly and rarely spread to other parts of the body.

    Nearly all basal cell cancers can be treated and cured. In some cases they may come back after treatment. Although this type of cancer rarely spreads to other parts of the body, if not treated it can extend below the skin to the bone. This can cause serious damage to the bone. Having a basal cell carcinoma also puts you at higher risk for other types of skin cancer.

    What is nonmelanoma skin cancer?

    Skin cancer is a disease that begins in the cells of the skin. The area of skin with the cancer is often called a lesion. There are several types of skin cancer (carcinoma). Melanoma is the most serious. But there are others that are known as nonmelanoma skin cancer. These include:

    • Basal cell carcinoma

    • Squamous cell carcinoma

    • Merkel cell carcinoma

    • Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    • Kaposi sarcoma

    Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are by far the most common.

  • Bladder Cancer

    Bladder Cancer: Introduction

    What is cancer?

    Cancer is when cells in the body change and grow out of control. To help you understand what happens when you have cancer, let's look at how your body works normally. Your body is made up of tiny building blocks called cells. Normal cells grow when your body needs them, and die when your body does not need them any longer.

    Cancer is made up of abnormal cells that grow even though your body doesn't need them. In most cancers, the abnormal cells grow to form a lump or mass called a tumor. If cancer cells are in the body long enough, they can grow into (invade) nearby areas. They can even spread to other parts of the body (metastasis).

    What is bladder cancer?

    The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower pelvis. It holds urine until it’s passed out of the body. Urine comes into the bladder through two tubes called the ureters. Each ureter is attached to a kidney. This is where urine is made. Urine leaves the bladder through a tube called the urethra.

  • Brain Cancer

    Brain Cancer

    What is vulvar cancer?

    In the United States, about 17,000 people are diagnosed with cancer that began in or next to the brain. These are called primary brain cancers. Another 100,000 people are diagnosed with cancer in the brain or spinal cord that spreadt from another place in the body. These are called secondary brain cancers.

    **Source - MD Anderson Cancer Center

  • Breast Cancer

    Breast Cancer

    What is breast cancer?

    Breast cancer is cancer that starts in the breast. It occurs when cells in the breast are changed and start to grow out of control. The ducts and the lobules are the 2 parts of the breast where cancer is most likely to start. 

    Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in women in the U.S. Doctors don't yet know exactly what causes it. Once breast cancer occurs, cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body, making it life-threatening. The good news is that breast cancer is often found early, when it's small and before it has spread.

    There are several types of breast cancer, including these more common types:

  • Cervical Cancer

    Cervical Cancer

    What is cervical cancer?

    Cancer that starts in cells of the cervix is called cervical cancer.

    Preventing cervical cancer

    Cervical cancer is one of the few types of cancer that doctors know how to prevent. There are 2 key ways to prevent cervical cancer:

    • Get regular Pap tests. These are done to find and treat any precancer cells as soon as possible, before they can change into true cancer.

    • Prevent precancer cells. You can do this by avoiding contact with the human papilloma virus (HPV), getting an HPV vaccine, and not smoking.

  • Cholangiocarcinoma (Bile Duct Cancer)

    Cholangiocarcinoma

    What is bile duct cancer?

    Bile duct cancer can grow in any part of the bile ducts. Another term for bile duct cancer is cholangiocarcinoma. This cancer is grouped by different types depending on where it starts. Each type can cause different symptoms. The types are:

    • Perihilar (hilar) bile duct cancers. These grow in the hilum, where the main right and left bile ducts join as they are leaving the liver. Most bile duct cancers start here.

    • Intrahepatic bile duct cancers. These grow in the tiny bile ducts inside the liver. Only a small number of bile duct cancers are this type.

    • Distal bile duct cancers. These typically grow in the common bile duct near the first part of the small intestine.

  • Colon Cancer

    Colon Cancer

    What is colon cancer?

    Colon cancer and rectal cancer sometimes are grouped together and called colorectal cancer. Not counting skin cancers, colorectal cancers are third most common type of cancer in the United States. More than 106,000 people in the country are diagnosed with colon cancer each year, according to the American Cancer Society. 

    One in 19 people, or a little more than 5%, of Americans will develop colon or rectal cancer in their lifetimes. When colon cancer is diagnosed early, it has nearly a 90% chance for cure. Colon cancer survival rates have increased over the past 15 years. Because of screening, polyps often are found and removed before they become cancer. Also, treatments have become more advanced and less invasive.

    **Source - MD Anderson Cancer Center

  • Colorectal Cancer

    Colorectal Cancer

    What is colorectal cancer?

    Colorectal cancer is cancer that starts in either your colon or your rectum. These make up the lower part of your digestive tract. In most cases, cancer does not start in both the colon and rectum. But both types of cancer have a lot in common. So they are often called colorectal cancer.

    How colorectal cancer starts and grows

    Changes that occur in the cells that line the inside of the colon or rectum can lead to growths called polyps. Over time, some types of polyps can become cancer. Removing polyps early may stop cancer from ever forming.

  • Ductal Carcinoma in Situ

    Ductal Carcinoma in Situ 

    What is Ductal Carcinoma in Situ?

    Ductal carcinoma. This is the most common type. It starts in the lining of the ducts. When breast cancer has not spread outside of the ducts, it's called ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or intraductal carcinoma. This is the most common type of noninvasive breast cancer. Invasive ductal carcinoma is breast cancer that has spread beyond the walls of the breast ducts. It's the most common type of invasive breast cancer.

  • Endometrial (Uterine) Cancer

    Endometrial (Uterine) Cancer

    What is endometrial cancer?  

    Endometrial cancer starts in the cells that form the inner lining of the uterus (which is called the endometrium).

    You may hear endometrial cancer called uterine cancer. It's actually 1 of 2 main types of uterine cancer. The other one is called uterine sarcoma. It starts in the muscle layer of the uterus, not the lining.  

    Endometrial cancer is the most common type of cancer in the uterus. It usually takes years to develop. It most often occurs in women who have already gone through menopause. It is highly curable when found early. 

  • Esophageal Cancer

    Esophageal Cancer

    What is endometrial cancer? 

    Esophageal cancer is cancer that starts in your esophagus. This is the tube that carries food and liquid from your throat to your stomach. 

    What are the types of esophageal cancer?

    There are two main types of esophageal cancer:

    • Adenocarcinoma. These are cancers that start in glandular cells. In the U.S. and other Western countries, most esophageal cancers are adenocarcinomas. These cancers normally start in the lower part of the esophagus.

    • Squamous cell carcinoma. These cancers start in squamous cells. This type of cancer can start anywhere along the esophagus.

    There are other types of esophageal cancer, but they are rare.

  • Gallbladder Cancer

    Gallbladder Cancer

    What is gallbladder cancer? 

    Gallbladder cancer occurs when healthy cells in the gallbladder change and grow out of control, forming a mass called a tumor. A tumor can be cancerous or benign. A cancerous tumor is malignant, meaning it can grow and spread to other parts of the body. A benign tumor means the tumor can grow but will not spread. This section is about primary gallbladder cancer. Primary gallbladder cancer is cancer that starts in the gallbladder, as opposed to cancer that begins somewhere else in the body and spreads to the gallbladder.

    **Source - Cancer.net

  • Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor

    Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Cancer

    What is Gastrointesintal Carcinoid Cancer? 

    Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors are a type of cancer that forms in the lining of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Cancer starts when cells begin to grow out of control.

    **Source - American Cancer Society

  • GIST (Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor)

    GIST (Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor)

    What is GIST?

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare tumors of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. They start in special cells called the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs). ICCs are part of the autonomic nervous system and coordinate the automatic movements of the GI tract. ICCs are sometimes called the "pacemakers" of the GI tract because they send signals to the muscles of the digestive system, telling them to move food and liquid through the GI tract.

    GISTs may occur anywhere along the length of the digestive tract from the esophagus to the anus. 

  • Glioblastoma

    Glioblastoma

    What is Gliobastoma?

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain tumor in adults. GBMs are a type of astrocytoma. They develop from cells called astrocytes. Normally, these cells form the blood brain barrier. The barrier determines which substances can get into the brain and which can’t. Astrocytes also help support nerve cells and deliver nutrients to them.

    Brain tumors are graded based on their aggressiveness. Grade I brain tumors are the least aggressive, and grade IV are the most aggressive. GBMs are grade IV astrocytomas. They grow quickly and often spread into nearby brain tissue.

    Treatment for GBM is aggressive. It usually involves surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. GBMs tend to occur between ages 45 and 70, but it can happen at other ages.

  • Head and Neck Cancer

    Head and Neck Cancer

    What is head and neck cancer?

    Head and neck cancer is the term given to cancers that start in the head and neck region. There are many different types of tissues in this area. These cancers can begin in any of these places:

    • Voice box or larynx

    • Nasal cavity, the passage behind the nose that air passes through it on its way to the throat during breathing

    • Mouth or oral cavity, including your lips, gums, tongue, and tonsils

    • Paranasal sinuses, spaces around the nose, lined with cells that make mucus that keeps the nose from drying out. They are also a space that allows your voice to echo when you talk or sing.

    • Throat or pharynx

    • Salivary glands, the glands that make saliva, which keeps food moist and helps dissolve food

  • HER2 Positive Breast Cancer

    HER2 Positive Breast Cancer

    HER2 status

    HER2 stands for human epidermal growth factor receptor-2. Breast cancer cells that have a lot of this protein are called HER2-positive. (Results are either positive or negative.) They tend to grow faster and are more likely to spread to other parts of the body.

    There are medicines that target and block HER2 to slow or stop cancer cell growth. If a woman’s breast cancer is HER2-positive, she should be treated with one of these medicines to get the best possible treatment outcomes.

  • Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Hodgkin Lymphoma

    What is Hodgkin lymphoma?

    Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer. It’s also known as Hodgkin disease. It starts in the lymphatic system.

    With Hodgkin lymphoma, cells in the lymphatic system grow out of control. This most often happens in the lymph nodes. The mass of extra cells form a tumor. Sometimes tumors form in the spleen or in other organs.

     
  • Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    What is inflammatory breast cancer?

    Inflammatory breast cancer. This is a rare form of invasive breast cancer. Often there is no lump or tumor. Instead, this cancer makes the skin of the breast look red and feel warm. The breast skin also looks thick and pitted, like an orange peel. 

  • Invasive Ductal Carcinoma

    Invasive Ductal Carcinoma

    What is invasive ductal carcinoma?

    Invasive ductal carcinoma is breast cancer that has spread beyond the walls of the breast ducts. It's the most common type of invasive breast cancer.

  • Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer

    Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer

    What is kidney cancer?

    Cancer that starts in kidney cells is called kidney or renal cancer.

    When kidney cancer forms

    A kidney is made up of many layers of cells. Kidney cancer can affect any one or all of these layers. The cancer can stop the kidneys from working normally. Kidney cancer may spread to other parts of the body. When cancer spreads, it’s called metastasis. The more cancer spreads (metastasizes), the harder it is to treat.

  • Leukemia

    Leukemia

    What are leukemia cells?

    When a person has leukemia, the body makes too many blood cells of one type. These abnormal cells, usually white blood cells, don't mature and look different from normal blood cells. They don't work as they should. They also interfere with the making of other blood cells, usually red blood cells and platelets.

    Types of leukemia

    Two types of abnormal white blood cells can turn into leukemia: lymphoid cells and myeloid cells.

    • When leukemia involves the lymphoid cells, it is called lymphocytic or lymphoblastic leukemia. 

    • When it is found in the myeloid cells, it is called myelogenous or myeloid leukemia.

    Leukemias are also grouped based on how fast they grow:

    • Acute leukemias get worse very quickly.

    • Chronic leukemias tend to be slow growing, but may get worse over time.

  • Liver Cancer

    Liver Cancer

    What is liver cancer?

    Liver cancer is cancer that starts in your liver. This is also called primary liver cancer. Primary liver cancer is not the same as cancer that started somewhere else in the body and then has spread (metastasized) to the liver. Cancer that starts in another organ, such as the colon, breast, or lung, and then spreads to the liver is called secondary liver cancer. Secondary liver cancer is more common in the United States than primary liver cancer. Cancer that has spread to the liver from somewhere else is treated like the original cancer. For instance, lung cancer that has spread to the liver is treated like lung cancer.

  • Lung Cancer

    Lung Cancer

    What is lung cancer?

    Lung cancer is cancer that starts in the cells that make up the lungs. Many other types of cancer, such as breast or kidney, can spread (metastasize) to the lungs. When this happens, the cancer is not called lung cancer. This is because cancer is named for--and treatment is based on--the site of the original tumor. For example, if breast cancer spreads to the lungs, it will be treated as metastatic breast cancer, not lung cancer.

  • Lymphomas (Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin)

    Lymphomas (Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin)

    There are many types of lymphomas that require clinical care by a physician or other healthcare professional. Listed in the directory below are some, for which we have provided a brief overview.

  • Melanoma

    Melanoma

    What is melanoma?

    Melanoma is a serious type of skin cancer. It starts in skin cells called melanocytes. Melanocytes are what give skin its color.

    There are 3 main types of skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are more common. Melanoma is a much less common. But melanoma is more likely to spread to other parts of the body. 

  • Meningioma

    Meningioma

    What is a meningioma?

    A meningioma is a type of tumor that grows in the meninges, which are layers of tissue that cover the brain and spinal cord. Technically, a meningioma is not a brain tumor because it does not arise from brain tissue. But, it's often referred to as a brain tumor.

    These tumors are usually non-cancerous (benign). This means that unlike cancerous tumors, they don't tend to spread to distant parts of the body. Because of their location, though, meningiomas can still cause neurological problems. As these tumors grow, they can compress the brain and spinal cord, leading to serious symptoms.

    Meningiomas are the most common type of brain tumors in adults and occur more often than cancerous brain tumors. They're more common in women and usually develop in the 40s or 50s. Children rarely get meningiomas.

  • Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    What is Merkel cell carcinoma?

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare type of skin cancer. Merkel cells are types of cells in the upper layer of the skin. The cells are very close to nerve endings, and help the skin sense light touch. Merkel cell carcinoma occurs when these cells grow out of control. Merkel cell carcinoma can be dangerous because it tends to grow quickly. It can be hard to treat if it spreads beyond the skin.

    Merkel cells are a type of neuroendocrine cell. This means they have features of both nerve cells and hormone-making cells. The cancer is also known as neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin.         

  • Mesothelioma

    Mesothelioma

    What are the types of mesothelioma?

    Mesotheliomas can also be grouped based on how the cancer cells look under a microscope:

    • The epithelioid type is the most common. It also tends to have a better outlook than the other types.

    • The sarcomatoid type tends to be harder to treat.

    • The mixed (biphasic) type has both epithelioid and sarcomatoid areas. It tends to have an outlook in between the other two types.

     

  • Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Metastic Breast Cancer

    Breast cancer that has spread to other organs of the body is called metastatic breast cancer. When breast cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it most often goes to the brain, bones, liver, or lungs.

     

  • Multiple Myeloma-Plasma Cell Tumor

    Multiple Myeloma-Plasma Cell Tumor

    What is multiple myeloma?

    Multiple myeloma is cancer that starts in your bone marrow. Specifically, it starts in plasma cells. In multiple myeloma, normal plasma cells go through a series of changes. This can eventually cause excess cell growth. It can also cause tumors to form in your bones. Along with bone tumors, multiple myeloma can also cause other health problems. These include having too much calcium in your blood, low blood cell counts, kidney problems, and frequent infections.

  • Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)

    Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)

    What is Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)?

    Myedlodysplastic syndrome is a group of diseases in which the bone marrow doesn't produce enough healthy blood cells. Instead, it makes too many immature cells, called blasts.

    These blasts die in the marrow or soon after entering the bloodstream, resulting in too few healthy blood cells and low blood counts.

    In its mildest form, MDS may be anemia, low platelets or low white blood count, but about 10% to 20% of diagnosed cases progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

    **Source - MD Anderson Cancer Center

  • Neuroendocrine Tumor

    Neuroendocrine Tumor

    There are many types of neuroendocrine tumors. This section focuses on 3 specific types: pheochromocytoma, Merkel cell cancer, and neuroendocrine carcinoma. Other types of tumors that begin in hormone-producing cells include pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, thyroid cancer, adrenal gland tumors, and pituitary gland tumors. 

    **Source ASCO - cancer.net

  • Neurofibromatosis

    Neurofibromatosis

    Neurofibromatosis is an unpredictable, progressive disorder that that causes tumors to form in the nervous system, specifcially in and around nerve cells. These tumors can show up anywhere, including the brain, spinal cord, adrenal gland, eyes, and muscle tissue.

    **Source - MD Anderson Cancer Center

  • Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    What is non-Hodgkin lymphoma?

    Lymphoma is a kind of cancer that starts in the lymphatic system. With non-Hodgkin lymphoma, cells in the lymphatic system grow out of control. This most often happens in the lymph nodes. The mass of extra cells form a tumor. Sometimes tumors form in the spleen or in other organs.

  • Oral Cavity or Throat Cancer

    Oral Cavity or Throat Cancer

    To understand these cancers, it helps to know the parts of the mouth and throat.

    The oral cavity includes the lips, the inside lining of the lips and cheeks (buccal mucosa), the teeth, the gums, the front two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth below the tongue, and the bony roof of the mouth (hard palate). The area behind the wisdom teeth (called the retromolar trigone) can be included as a part of the oral cavity, but it's often thought of as part of the oropharynx.

    The oropharynx is the part of the throat just behind the mouth. It starts where the oral cavity stops. It includes the base of the tongue (the back third of the tongue), the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth), the tonsils, and the side and back walls of the throat.

    The oral cavity and oropharynx help you breathe, talk, eat, chew, and swallow. Minor salivary glands throughout the oral cavity and oropharynx make saliva that keeps your mouth and throat moist and helps you digest food.

     **Source - American Cancer Society

  • Osteosarcoma

    Osteosarcoma

    What is osteosarcoma?

    Osteosarcoma is a type of bone cancer that usually develops in the osteoblast cells that form bone. It happens most often in children, adolescents, and young adults. Approximately 800 new cases of osteosarcoma are reported each year in the U.S. Of these cases, about 400 are in children and teens. It happens slightly more often in males than in females.

    Osteosarcoma most commonly happens in the long bones around the knee. Other sites for osteosarcoma include the upper leg, or thighbone, the lower leg, upper arm bone, or any bone in the body, including those in the pelvis, shoulder, and skull.

    Osteosarcoma may grow into nearby tissues, such as tendons or muscles. It may also spread, or metastasize, through the bloodstream to other organs or bones in the body.

  • Ovarian Cancer

    Ovarian Cancer

    What is ovarian cancer?

    Ovarian cancer is cancer that starts in your ovaries. Only women have ovaries, so only women get this kind of cancer.

    Many types of tumors can start growing in the ovaries. Some are benign. This means that they’re not cancer. Benign tumors don’t spread. They can usually be treated by removing one ovary or part of the ovary. Ovarian cancer, however, is a malignant (cancerous) tumor. If a cancerous tumor isn’t treated, it can grow and spread to other parts of your body.

    The ovary is made up of many layers of cells. Cancer can affect any one or all of these layers. These are the main types of ovarian cancer.

  • Pancoast Tumors

    Pancoast Tumors

    Cancers of the top part of the lungs (called Pancoast tumors) sometimes can affect certain nerves to the eye and part of the face, causing a group of symptoms called Horner syndrome:

    • Drooping or weakness of one eyelid
    • A smaller pupil (dark part in the center of the eye) in the same eye
    • Reduced or absent sweating on the same side of the face
    • Pancoast tumors can also sometimes cause severe shoulder pain.

    **Source - American Cancer Society

  • Pancreatic Cancer

    Pancreatic Cancer

    What is pancreatic cancer?

    Pancreatic cancer is cancer that starts in your pancreas. In this cancer, normal cells in the pancreas undergo a series of changes. This can eventually lead to excess cell growth and the formation of tumors.

    What are the types of cancer in the pancreas?

    Here’s an overview of the types of cancer that can start in the pancreas:

    • Adenocarcinomas. These exocrine cancers start in cells with glandular properties, or cells that secrete. The majority (more than 95%) of pancreatic cancers are adenocarcinomas. This is usually what’s meant by the term pancreatic cancer.

    • Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). These tumors, also known as islet cell tumors, start in endocrine cells in the pancreas. There are many types of pancreatic NETs. They can be noncancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant).

    Other types of cancer that can start in the pancreas are much less common. They include acinar cell carcinomas, adenosquamous carcinomas, and squamous cell carcinomas. They also include signet ring cell carcinomas and giant cell tumors.

  • Penile Cancer

    Penile Cancer

    What Is Penile Cancer?

    Cancer that starts in cells in the penis is called penile cancer. Penile cancer is rare in the U.S. Most penile cancer (about 95%) is squamous cell carcinoma. This means the cancer begins in the flat skin cells (squamous cells) of the penis. Most squamous cell penile cancers begin on the foreskin or on the tip of the penis (glans). Squamous cell penile cancer typically grows slowly. It can usually be cured if it is found early.

  • Prostate Cancer

    Prostate Cancer

    What is prostate cancer?

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men (not counting skin cancer) in the U.S. It tends to occur mainly in older men. In most cases prostate cancer is found before it has spread to other parts of the body. Cancer that hasn’t spread is easier to treat and cure.

    What are the different types of prostate cancer?

    Cancer is tumors or growths that can grow into nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. Nearly all types of prostate cancer start in the gland cells. These are the cells that make the prostate fluid. These types of cancer are called adenocarcinoma. Other types of cancer can also start in the prostate. These include small cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, and sarcoma. But these types of cancer are rare. Most men with prostate cancer have adenocarcinoma.

    Other types of growths can happen in the prostate. Some types of growth are not cancer (benign). These types of growths include:

    • Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). As a man ages, the prostate can grow larger. This is called BPH. It’s a common condition. BPH is not prostate cancer. It doesn't turn into prostate cancer. But BPH can cause the prostate to press on the urethra. This can lead to symptoms, such as trouble urinating, which might need to be treated. 

    • Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). This is an abnormal prostate growth that may be found with a prostate biopsy. It is not prostate cancer. PIN can be low grade or high grade. Low-grade PIN is common, especially as men get older. Most healthcare providers don’t consider it to be a concern. Men who have high-grade PIN have a chance that cancer is somewhere else in the prostate.

  • Rectal Cancer

    Rectal Cancer

    What is rectal cancer?

    More than 40,000 people in the United States develop rectal cancer each year. When rectal cancer is found early, chances are good it can be treated successfully. Colon cancer and rectal cancer sometimes are grouped together and called colorectal cancer.

    The rectum is a part of of the digestive system, also called the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The colon is the first 4 to 6 feet of the large intestine, also called the large bowel. The rectum is the last part of the large intestine, which ends in the anus.

    Rectal cancer develops slowly and usually starts as polyps, which are overgrowths of tissue in the lining of the colon. Rectal cancer may develop within a polyp, but not all polyps contain cancer.

    Types of Rectal Cancer

    More than 95% of colorectal cancers are adenocarcinomas. Approximately 90% of colorectal adenocarcinomas as adenomas, which are a type of polyp that may become cancer.

    **Source - MD Anderson Cancer Center

  • Sarcoma

    About sarcoma

    Sarcoma can start in any part of the body, such as the bone or soft tissue.

    • 60% begin in an arm or leg
    • 30% start in the torso or abdomen
    • 10% occur in the head or neck

    Both children and adults can develop a sarcoma. It is rare in adults, accounting for about 1% of all adult cancers. However, sarcomas are more common in children, representing about 15% of all childhood cancers.

    Different Types of Sarcoma

    • Angiosarcoma
    • Desmoid tumor, also called deep fibromatosis
    • Ewing family of tumors
    • Fibrosarcoma
    • Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)
    • Kaposi sarcoma
    • Leiomyosarcoma
    • Liposarcoma
    • Myxofibrosarcoma
    • Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST), also known as neurofibrosarcoma
    • Rhabdomyosarcoma
    • Synovial sarcoma
    • Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS)

    **Source ASCO - cancer.net

  • Skin Cancer (Nonmelanoma)

    Skin Cancer (Nonmelanoma)

    What is nonmelanoma skin cancer?

    Skin cancer is a disease that begins in the cells of the skin. The area of skin with the cancer is often called a lesion. There are several types of skin cancer (carcinoma). Melanoma is the most serious. But there are others that are known as nonmelanoma skin cancer. These include:

    • Basal cell carcinoma

    • Squamous cell carcinoma

    • Merkel cell carcinoma

    • Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    • Kaposi sarcoma

    Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are by far the most common.

  • Small Intestine Cancer

    Small Intestine Cancer

    Small Intestine Cancer occurs when there are particular changes to cells DNA in the small intestine. Execessive growth and buildup of these cells would occur from these changes. Currently, those in the medical field have not been able to completely understand what leads to these changes to take place. The most popular theory is that a reparative enzyme is absent, which leads to increased DNA damage and mutations of cells which come as humans grow older. 

  • Spinal Tumor

    Spinal Tumor

    A tumor forms when an abnormal cell grows to form a mass of abnormal cells. Spinal cord tumors are tumors that form in the spinal cord or in the area around it.

    A spinal cord tumor may be cancer (malignant) or noncancer (benign). A benign tumor can often cause pain and discomfort because it pushes on the spinal cord or nerves.

    A spinal cord tumor may be called primary. This means the cancer started in the spinal cord. Or the tumor may be secondary. This means the cancer started somewhere else in the body and spread to the spinal cord. Most of the time, spinal cord tumors are secondary tumors. A spinal cord tumor is often a cancer of the lung, breast, prostate, or another cancer that has spread throughout the body to reach the spine.

    Spinal cord tumors are sometimes caused by a genetic disorder, such as neurofibromatosis.

    Facts about spinal cord tumors

    Spinal cord tumors are fairly uncommon. It's much more common to develop a brain tumor than a tumor on the spinal cord. A spinal cord tumor may form inside the spinal cord itself or around the bones that make up the spine. Spinal cord tumors can cause problems with the nearby nerves, blood vessels, and bones.

    Some spinal cord tumors can be successfully treated. The earlier you tell your healthcare provider about your symptoms, get a diagnosis, and start treatment, the better your outcome is likely to be. But spinal cord tumors often cause long-lasting (permanent) damage to the nerves and result in disability.

    Types of spinal cord tumors

    Spinal cord tumors affect many different areas and come in many different types, including:

    • Medulloblastomas. These tumors start in the brain and metastasize to the spine. They are most common in children

    • Gliomas (ependymomas, astrocytomas, or gangliogliomas)These are tumors that form in cells called glial cells.

    • Chordomas. These form in the spine and can push against it.

    • Schwannomas. These start inside the peripheral nerves.

    • Meningiomas. These tumors start in the tissues around the spinal cord (meninges).

    • Metastatic (secondary) tumors. These are cancers that have spread from the lung, breast, prostate, or other organs.

    • Lymphoma. This is a cancer of white blood cells called lymphocytes.

    • Multiple myeloma. This is a cancer of the bone marrow.

  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Squamous cell carcinoma, also known as squamous cell cancer, is the second most common type of skin cancer. It begins in flat cells called squamous cells in the upper part of the epidermis. Like basal cell cancer, it often starts in areas of skin exposed to the sun, such as the face, head, neck, arms, and hands. But it can also start in other parts of the body, such as skin in the genital area. Squamous cell carcinoma lesions often appear as a rough or scaly reddish patch on the skin that tends to grow quickly. But it can also have various kinds of appearance.

    Squamous cell carcinoma is more likely to grow and spread to other parts of the body than basal cell carcinoma, although this is still uncommon. Most squamous cell carcinoma is found early enough to be treated and cured.

  • Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    What is stomach cancer?

    Stomach cancer is a disease in which cancer starts in cells in the stomach. It’s also called gastric cancer. There are different types of stomach cancer. They each grow in different parts of the stomach. The different types of cancer cells also look different.

    The most common type of stomach cancer is called adenocarcinoma. This type forms in the inner layer of the stomach. The inner layer of the stomach is called the mucosa.

    Other types of stomach cancer are much less common and include:

    • Lymphomas. These are cancers of immune system tissue.

    • Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). These form from a type of cell in the stomach wall called interstitial cells of Cajal.

    • Carcinoid tumors. These come from cells in the stomach that make hormones. These do not typically spread to other organs.

  • Testicular Cancer

    Testicular Cancer

    What is testicular cancer?

    Cancer that starts in a testicle is called testicular cancer. It is one of the most curable forms of cancer.
     

    What are the types of testicular cancer?

    Germ cell tumors

    More than 90% of testicular cancers begin in a type of cell in the testicles called a germ cell. These are the cells that give rise to sperm. There are 2 main types of germ cell tumors: seminomas and nonseminomas. These 2 types occur almost equally. Many testicular cancers have both seminoma and nonseminoma cells. These are called mixed germ cell tumors.

    Seminomas

    Seminomas tend to grow more slowly. They often respond very well to treatment. There are 2 types:

    • Classical (typical). More than 90% of seminomas are classical. These are usually found in men between ages 25 and 45. 

    • Spermatocytic. These tend to occur later in life. The average age of diagnosis is 65.

    Nonseminomas

    These grow faster than seminomas. They tend to occur in men between their late teens and early 30s.

    There are 4 main subtypes:

    • Embryonal carcinomas. This type tends to grow and spread quickly. Under a microscope, these tumors look like tissue in early embryos.

    • Yolk sac carcinomas. This is the most common form of germ cell tumor in infants and boys. These are usually treated successfully when found in children. They can be harder to treat in adults.

    • Choriocarcinomas. This type is very rare and tends to grow fast. It often spreads quickly to other parts of the body.

    • Teratomas. Under a microscope these tumors look like the 3 layers of tissue in a growing embryo. They are rarely the only type of cell in a nonseminoma.

  • Thyroid Cancer

    Thyroid Cancer

    What is thyroid cancer?

    Thyroid cancer starts in the cells of the thyroid gland.

    There are 4 main types of thyroid cancer (carcinoma):

    • Papillary carcinoma. This is the most common type. It affects women more than men.

    • Follicular carcinoma. This is a more aggressive form of thyroid cancer. It accounts for about 10% of all cases. 

    • Medullary thyroid carcinoma. This is a rare type of thyroid cancer. It produces a lot of calcitonin and tends to spread. 

    • Anaplastic carcinoma. This is a very rare type of thyroid cancer. It grows quickly and tends to spread. It can be hard to treat.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    How thyroid cancer spreads

    When thyroid cancer spreads outside the thyroid gland, it typically goes to nearby lymph nodes. It can also spread to nearby blood vessels and other tissues in the neck. Over time, it can spread to distant parts of the body, such as the lungs and bones.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

  • Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Triple Negative Breast Cancer is a type of breast cancer that doesn’t have estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. It also doesn’t have an excess of the HER2 protein on the cancer cell surfaces. This type of breast cancer tends to occur more often in younger women and in African-American women. It tends to grow and spread faster than most other types of breast cancer. Because these cancer cells don't have hormone receptors or excess HER2, medicines that target these changes don't work. The most common kind is triple-negative invasive ductal carcinoma.

  • Thymoma

    Thymoma

    These are the more common type of tumor in the thymus. Most thymomas are slow growing, but they can be cancerous. They can also spread to other parts of your body. There are different types of thymomas. When your healthcare provider finds a thymoma, it’s classified based on two factors. These include how the cells look under a microscope and whether it’s spread past the thymus (and, if so, how far). Thymomas often show up with an autoimmune disease, such as myasthenia gravis.

  • Vaginal Cancer

    Vaginal Cancer

    What is vaginal cancer?

    Vaginal cancer starts in the cells of your vagina. The vagina is also known as the birth canal. It's the hollow, tube-like passageway between the bottom part of your uterus (cervix) and the outside of your body. It's the passageway through which fluid passes out of the body during menstrual periods.

    Types of vaginal cancer

    Most vaginal cancers begin in the lining of your vagina, which is called the epithelium. These are called vaginal squamous cell carcinomas. This type of vaginal cancer develops over many years. It starts as precancerous changes, called vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN).

    These are other, very rare types of vaginal cancer:

    • Adenocarcinomas, which develop in the glands of your vagina

    • Malignant melanomas, a form of skin cancer, which affect the lower or outer portion of your vagina

    • Sarcomas, which develop deep in the muscular wall of your vagina 

  • Vulvar Cancer

    Vulvar Cancer

    What is vulvar cancer?

    Most vulvar cancers begin in the squamous cells, and lead to squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Squamous cells are the cells that make up most of the skin and other surfaces of the body.

    Other rare types of vulvar cancer include melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and sarcoma of the vulva.

    Understanding the vulva

    The vulva is the outer part of the female reproductive system. It’s also called the external genitalia. The vulva includes:

    • The mons pubis. This is the rounded area in front of the pubic bones that becomes covered with hair at puberty. It includes the skin folds under the pubic hair that protect the opening of the urethra (the tube that carries urine out of the body) and the vagina.

    • Two folds of skin. The outer folds are called the labia majora. The inner folds are called the labia minora.

    • The prepuce or the hood of the clitoris. This is made by the inner fold of the vulva.

    • The clitoris is below the prepuce. It’s a sensitive piece of tissue that swells with blood when stimulated.

    • The fourchette is at the bottom of the inner folds of the vulva. This is where the labia minora meet.

    • The perineum is area between the fourchette and the anus.

     Most vulvar cancers start in the labia majora.

     


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